Dynamic interactions between Darwin's finches and an alien parasite in the early phase of invasion on the Galapagos Islands
Invasions or accidental introduction of bird parasites are responsible for many of the declines in avian biodiversity and are increasing as a result of an expanding global network of pathways. Parasites cause direct or indirect fitness loss by impairing reproduction and survival, and thus represent a major selective force. The fitness loss of hosts caused by pathogens , which is taken here as the working definition of virulence can arise via weight loss, anemia, reduced growth and effects on other life-history parameters. Virulence levels within and among host species can vary greatly and depend on a number of interrelated factors including the costs of virulence, the tolerance and resistance levels of the host, historical constraints, ecological factors and epidemiological features of the host–parasite interaction.
We aim to understand how a parasite establishes itself in a new host environment and how previously naive hosts respond to this challenge. Regarding the parasite, the focus of the current proposal is to assess differences in life history strategies between the ancestral continental population and the Galapagos population, and to investigate the factors driving the forward-shift of this parasite's life cycle on the Galapagos Islands.
Vienna Urban Carbon Laboratory - Isotopes
- Stable carbon isotope measurements for monitoring urban CO2 emissions in the city of Vienna
- Characterization of the isotope carbon signature of various CO2 sources
- Methodological aspects for implementing a cavity ring-down laser absorption spectrometer for long-term monitoring and integration in an eddy covariance isoflux system
- Analysis and interpretation of measured ambient isotopes and isofluxes
On the way to a climate-friendly, sustainable cultivation of agricultural soils
The overall aim of the EJP-SOIL is to build a sustainable European integrated research system for agricultural soils. A frame of reference for climate-friendly and sustainable agricultural land management is to be developed and implemented. This creates an environment in which the contribution of agricultural soils to major societal challenges is maximized. These challenges include food and water security, sustainable agricultural production, adaptation to climate change, climate protection, provision of ecosystem services, conservation of biodiversity and human health.
Efficiency of riparian strips to protect water quality against pollution from land use and climate change
Almost half of the land area in Lower Austria is used for agriculture. In the Mostviertel in particular, an intensification of fertilization has been observed in areas near streams in the last 5-10 years. This leads to an increased entry of phosphorus and nitrogen into the waters, which are deposited in the sediments and - especially in the case of phosphorus - can lead to chronic eutrophication of the streams due to redissolution. The problem becomes particularly clear when there are long dry periods with low water levels, as in summer 2018. Increased water temperatures and nutrient concentrations lead to microbial oxygen consumption in the sediment, which can be felt in the water column. In addition, the sediments can act as accumulators for faecal-borne pathogens that enter the waters via sewage, but also via organic fertilizers.
Organic carbon sequestration potential in agricultural soils in Europe
Storing carbon in soils reduces emissions and can help curb climate change. However, there is a lack of a comprehensive assessment of how much organic carbon (SOC) can be bound in European soils with different management options, especially taking into account national data on agricultural management. The aim of this project is to estimate the realizable SOC storage potential, taking into account technical and socio-economic constraints, and is based on current FAO activity for a global SOC storage potential map. The key to SOC storage is increased input of biomass (e.g. plant residues) into the soil. For this purpose, a new database is being created to facilitate model runs with RothC and other soil SOC models for various management scenarios. The potential implementation area is being developed together with all CarboSeq partners and the national expert centers. The maps of the SOC storage potential for various management options point to the most efficient agricultural management options at the regional level in order to store the SOC for climate protection and thus serve the political decision-makers.
The "Iso-Potential" project enables the renewal and peripheral expansion of the isotope mass spectrometer (IRMS) equipment fleet in the stable isotope laboratory at the university and research site in Tulln (UFT). The old device to be replaced (GC-IRMS Delta S) has reached the end of its useful life and no longer corresponds to the state of the art. The project enables the acquisition of a modern and further developed device (GC-GasBench-IRMS). This not only replaces an old device, but also creates the possibility of methodically processing additional research topics (climate-relevant gases, water quality) by expanding the periphery.
The CHARBAK project helps itself with the development of the physically basic biochar filters for groundwater remediation. The focus is on the correct establishment of a biofilm in the biochar filter to not only sorb the contaminants, but also to hear them. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are examined using naphthalene as an example. The development process has the initial production and the biofilms used in the process. The sorption and degradation of pollutants are improved and listened to under the working conditions in batch and crevice tests with the help of component-specific isotope analyzes.
Sustainable Management of Soil Organic Matter to Middle Trade-offs between C sequestration and nitrous oxide, methane and nitrate losses
The SOMMIT project will evaluate trade-offs and synergies between soil carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide, methane and nitrate losses that are influenced by soil management options to increase soil carbon storage.
The integrated and interdisciplinary approach will address the main pedoclimatic conditions and agricultural systems in Europe through
1) Synthesis and meta-analysis of available literature and data;
2) targeted, novel measurements on key experiments; and
3) Simulation of long-term agro-ecological system reactions to contrasting management options.
In addition, the data obtained are synthesized by a fuzzy expert system, the
4) an evidence-based identification of optimal strategies for alleviating conflicting goals and
5) enables effective stakeholder engagement.
At present, for gas emission measurements, sampling of the atmosphere must be carried out with the help of towers or airplanes - capital-intensive methods. Easy access to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has opened up new possibilities for gas sampling. The Iso-2-Drone project aims to develop and produce a modular UAV-based gas monitoring system for emission measurements in order to replace current, expensive technologies additional Information
Heavy Metal City-Zen
Heavy metal contamination on human health often outweighs the real risk. Part of the problem is the lack of data in the context of urban production. In addition, collecting city-wide data on the condition of the soil is often difficult and expensive. In this project we want to try to overcome these problems by attracting citizens to simple collaborative experiments in their city gardens. From this data we will create a city map that will provide information about the health of the soil as well as the potential risk of heavy metal contamination. We will also provide information on ways in which these risks can be mitigated in an urban horticultural context.
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We plan to undertake research and development in the area of plant nutrition using a worm compost and to test a series of different compost mixtures. We will also undertake varietal testing and determine the quality and nutrient uptake from the different mixtures and the how the compost acts as a potting compost for nursery gardeners. We will specifically test how biochar interacts with the worms and how the microbial composition of the compost changes with biochar addition.
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In this project, a gentle floor washing technology developed by the University of Ljubljana is being used at two locations in Slovenia and Austria. Together with the BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, the soil functions of the affected soil are being improved and examined using isotope-based methods and monitored. The overarching goal of this project is to investigate the ecological, economic and social potential of this cost-effective floor washing technology. The patented process is not only able to remove lead and other toxic elements, but also to conserve soil as a resource.