Chemical looping combustion (CLC) has unique potential for reducing energy and cost penalty for CO2 capture, as it avoids the costly gas separation of other CO2 capture technologies. Fuel and combustion air are never mixed. Therefore, no gas separation occurs and the energy penalty can be – at least theoretically – be reduced substantially compared to gas separation approaches. Early deployment of CLC is seen in natural gas steam generation, where gas-to-steam efficiency penalty with CLC is below 1%-point compared to 15%-points with amine scrubbing and 8%-points with oxyfuel combustion, all for 95% capture rate. Reduction of the CO2 avoidance cost of 60% compared to amine scrubbing post combustion capture results from higher efficiency.
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