Living cells are highly sensitive to topographic as well as chemical alterations within the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ability to engineer surfaces mimicking ECM components and control the adhesion, spreading and growth of cells on nanopatterned surfaces is critical for medical implants and for functional biomaterial scaffolds used in tissue engineering, as well as for the development of cell integrated biochips as cell-based sensors and lab-on-a-chip bioanalytical devices. S-layer proteins are well-studied self-assembly systems. The in vitro recrystallization properties of native and genetically engineered S-layer proteins that form two-dimensional nanolattices in suspensions, on solid supports and interfaces enable their application in surface patterning. Due to their structural and functional diversity S-layer monolayers show completely different surface properties with regard to cell adhesion and cell spreading of human primary cells and tumor cell lines. As shown in Fig 2 for NHDF cells the S-layer SbsB provide a biocompatible surface for cell attachment and growth whereas the SbpA S-layer acts as an anti-fouling layer and therefore, no cell adhesion and growth occur. Thus, S-layers enable the development of promising strategies for creating cellular patterns on various substrates and the design of new biomaterials. Contact person: Ass.Prof.Dipl.-Ing. Seta Küpcü