Types of courses

Each programme comprises various types of courses as set out in the curriculum.  They differ mostly in their method of instruction and assessment mode. Courses without continuous assessment are to be completed with one final examination. Courses with continuous examination are assessed based on performance during the course. 

For detailed guidelines (as decreed by the Senate) about coursework assessment, see:


Only the German version ist legally binding.

The University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences offers the following types of courses:

Lectures (VO)
Lectures teach individual components of a subject and its methods.

Exercises (UE)
Building on the theoretical foundations students learn and apply specific skills.

Internships (PR)
Building on theoretical foundations and practical skills, students individually elaborate specific questions.

Mandatory practical seminar (PP)
Based on their theoretical and practical foundations, students independently elaborate specific research topics relating to their professional internship.

Seminars (SE)
Students individually develop, elaborate and discuss teaching content.

Excursions (EX)
To strengthen previously acquired knowledge, subject-specific aspects of the programme are demonstrated within their real-life setting in the context of excursions in Austria and abroad.

Bachelor's seminars (BA)
Bachelor's seminars assist with completing a Bachelor's thesis.  

Master's seminars (MA)
Academic supervision is provided for completing a Master's thesis. 

Combined courses:
Combined courses integrate - with the exception of projects - various types of courses, producing added educational value. 

Projects (PJ)
Such courses focus on problem-centred learning. Under supervision students - mostly in small groups - develop case studies using scientific methods.

Lecture and seminar (VS)
Lecture and exercises (VU)
Lecture and excursion (VX)
Seminar and excursion (SX)
Exercises and seminar (US)
Exercises and excursion (UX)