Molar mass distribution of celluloses by SEC-MALLS

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Carbonyl group profiles of celluloses
(“CCOA method”)

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Carboxyl group profiles of celluloses
(“FDAM method”)

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Cellulose cystallinity and allomorphs
(solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy)

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Hemicellulose content and monosaccharide composition
(methanolysis / total hydrolysis)

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Degree of substitution in cellulose derivatives

Isolation and purification of technical lignins

  • Lignin precipitation
  • Ultrafiltration of lignin and adsorption methods
  • Lignin extraction by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE)

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Lignins – functional group analysis

  • Methoxy, ethoxy and other alkoxy groups
  • Hydroxy groups
    Hydroxyl groups by 31P NMR
    Hydroxy groups by 1H NMR after peracetylation
    Hydroxy groups by methylation headspace isotope-dilution GC-MS
  • Sulfonic acid group

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Molar mass distribution

  • Size exclusion chromatography
  • Ultra-performance chromatography (Advanced polymer chromatography, APC)
  • Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation

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Carbohydrate components in lignin

  • Methanolysis
  • HPTLC

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Linkage analysis

  • One- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy
  • Quantitative 13C NMR
  • 2D NMR experiments for structure analysis of lignins

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Basic lignin characterization

  • Solids content
  • Extractives in lignin
  • Thermal analysis techniques
  • Lignin content in biorefinery process liquors

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Process liquor analysis
Lignin isolation, total dry solids, lignin content, carbohydrate content

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Extraction of lipophilic compounds
Extraction by supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) or by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE)

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Parameter optimization for extractions of lipophilic compounds by automated accelerated solvent extraction (ASE)

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Separation and analysis of lipophilic extractives by hyphenated gas chromatography (GC-MS/FID)

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Separation and analysis of extractives by UPC2 / QToF-MS

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