854319 Schwerpunktprojekt zur Landschaftsplanung (in Eng.)

Vortragende/r (Mitwirkende/r)
Gugerell, Katharina , Hofmann, Tobias
Angeboten im Semester
Sommersemester 2021
Unterrichts-/ Lehrsprachen


A strained relationship: Sustainable Land-Use, Cultural Heritage and Mineral Resources

Many cultural landscapes and sites belong to our joint cultural and natural heritage. Often, natural and cultural values are protected as natural, cultural or mixed heritage of so called ‚outstanding universal value’. Since 1992 the UNESCO acknowledges such landscapes as world heritage, and provides an international legal instrument for their protection (UNESCO, 2019, 1992), combining nature conservation with the protection of cultural properties (Rössler and Lin, 2018). The UNESCO differentiates three different categories: (i) Designed Landscapes, intentionally created by people, (ii) Associative Cultural Landscapes, demonstrating powerful religious or cultural associations of natural elements rather than materially embodied cultural evidence, and (iii) organically evolved landscapes, based on a their social, economic, administrative and/or religious context and evolution. Thus, cultural landscapes mirror specific, ‘traditional’ land-use practices that are well embedded in the natural environment. Previous research stresses the capacity of cultural landscapes to support bio-cultural diversity and ecosystem services due to their sustainable land-use (Aplin, 2007).

On the other hand, mineral resources – mineral extraction and extractive industries – play a crucial role in and for the European and global economy (e.g., environmental technologies, automotive, manufacturing) and the sustainable, continuous supply with mineral resources play an important role and is reflected in different policies including safeguarding the mineral wealth for future generations- Clearly, mining landscapes are ‘continuing cultural landscapes’, mirroring human-nature interactions, but many are bearing the scars of mineral extraction and abandonment (Sinnett, 2019). Most extractive processes have significant impact on the involved bio-cultural systems, the delivery of ecosystem services (Tost et al., 2020) and mostly produce landscapes with modest aesthetic quality and for human well-being. More recently scholars are sparking the academic discourse on sustainable practices in extractive industries (Endl et al., in press) and the broadening of the debate on Social License to Operate (SLO) incorporating a societal dimension which complements the more traditional reading of ‘community’ focused SLO concepts. However, the blasting of Aboriginal heritage in 2020 (Allam, 2020) may challenge mining companies’ colorful reports and policies on social and cultural responsibility when it comes down to the expansion and continuation of their operations. UNESCO reports that since the early 1990s pressure from extractive industries are rising, resulting in 411 reports on 79 World Heritage sites (47 states) concerning extractive practices, such as minerals, oil/gas and quarrying; the 2015 Word Heritage Report (UNESCO, 2015) stresses that 18% of the inscribed properties are notably affected by exploration and/or mineral extraction (mining, oil and gas). While UNESCO acknowledges that the increasing population growth and consumption practices result in development pressures and that the mining industry is coming more and more in contact with protected areas' (UNESCO, 2001).

Inhaltliche Voraussetzungen (erwartete Kenntnisse)

no particular pre-knowledge needed


In this course we will

•explore different aspects of (cultural) landscapes, mineral resources and possible conflicts resulting from an intense land-use type
•explore the relationship between mineral resources as important land-use and cultural heritage
•learn, which types of landscapes mineral-resource extraction is producing, and how that relates to landscape theory
•discuss different conceptual approaches of mineral resource governance, such as Social License to Operate (SLO): the ‘societal perspective’ of SLO stresses, that mineral extraction operations require ‘community acceptance ‘and societal acceptance’; in particular on societal level there might be tensions between different public interests (e.g. economic vs. heritage protection)
•study, which role mineral resource extraction plays in UNESCO cultural landscapes, and how they are managed
•investigate, which pressures mineral resource extraction can cause for cultural landscapes (e.g., reviewing UNESCO reporting system) and regional development
•examine, which planning instruments on local, regional, national and international level are in place to manage and govern cultural landscapes (UNESCO, IUCN)
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