Particularly in the upper reaches of Rivakdara (Gunt Valley, Southern Pamir), a number of growing glacial lakes was identified upstream of Rivakkul Lake. An outbreak of one of the glacial lakes could generate a flood wave weakening the composite dam of Rivakkul, with catastrophic consequences for the population all the way downstream to the town of Khorog. Some more potentially hazardous glacial lakes drain directly and steeply into the villages of the Gunt Valley. Whilst most of these lakes are dammed by moraines - which may, however, contain some ice - some other lakes are dammed by glaciers or rock glaciers. The most significant example is located in Khavrazdara (Bartang Valley, Central Pamir), where the rock glacier dam appears stable at the moment, but further melting of the ice could lead to a sudden outbreak as soon as a certain threshold is reached. In the highest portions of the Pamir close to the Fedchenko Glacier, melting of the glaciers has not yet reached the stage as observed in the Southern Pamir. Glacial lakes just start to develop, but an accelerated evolution of glacial lakes in the area has to be expected in the future. In addition, surging glaciers in the area may lead to the quick development of new lakes. This is of particular importance as the valley downstream - though far away - is considered as a development area. The Zarafshan and Turkestan Ranges in North-western Tajikistan have experienced the processes which are now active in the Pamir some thousands of years ago, as indicated by geomorphologic records. However, rainfall-triggered landslides of large magnitude occur at an interval of few decades, and the damming of lakes by such landslides has been reported repeatedly, partly requiring the resettlement of the population.