Environmental impacts of transport
Many studies showed the vulnerability of Austria`s tourism to climate change, possible economic impacts, risks and opportunities. However tourism itself contributes substantially to climate change. Given the importance for the economy, a specific, carfully reviewed assessment is needed. The purpose of the Special Report on Tourism is to summarise and assess the state of knowledge of all aspects of this topic based on and open to contributions by the full community of Austrian researchers and related experts.
In response to the still increasing GHG emissions from road transport in Austria, we propose the use of Participatory Value Evaluation (PVE) to assess climate change mitigation policies in the transport sector. This novel assessment model allows for the quantitative inclusion of social considerations and governmental aspects in economic policy analysis and hence has the potential to increase the social acceptance of sustainable transport policies.
The LAST MILE project concept, developed in the first half-year 2015, is based on the capitalization processes of foregoing sustainable mobility projects, in articular the two projects Access2Mountain and Transdanube, led by the Environment Agency Austria, both dealing with sustainable mobility in tourism. More than its forerunners, the LAST MILE project sets a concrete focus on the problematic accessibility of the last link of the travel chain from origin to destination (the so called "last mile") and collects and analyses solutions to cover this bottleneck with sustainable modes of transport. Not only shall the environmental benefit be considered, but also the resource- and cost-efficiency in the long run. Regions shall profit from an interregional focused experience exchange on flexible and
demand-responsive mobility solutions and last but not least transfer best practice but also innovative approaches to their regional policies.
In the spring and summer 2015, a personalized mobility campaign called SWITCH was performed in all of Vienna. Within this campaign, nearly 1.000 people, among which 160 were Seestadt residents, received a personalized mobility consultancy and tailored information. The participants’ change in mobility behavior and the attitudes towards car-less mobility were assessed by means of a before/after survey. The results were then compared with a control group of people not part-taking in the campaign. The results show that active participants in the SWITCH campaign traveled more actively afterward: the number of monthly trips on foot increased by 4% and their trips by bike increased by 12%. At the same time, their trips by car reduced by 4%. The behavior of the control group, on the other hand, displayed a reduction of trips on foot by 5% and an increase in car trips by 12%. Moreover, the participants felt far more informed about the overall topic of active mobility and the individual and societal benefits it comes with than the control group did.
A similar campaign, tailored to specific local challenges, is a suitable measure to address the newly expected residents of the so-called Seestadt. They are expected to move in during the next two large settlement waves (2019 to mid-2020: “Seepark Quartier”, mid-2020 to 2021: “Quartier am Seebogen”). The goal is to approach these new residents early on in order to depict alternatives to the car available in the Seestadt. Furthermore, the campaign aims to increase the appreciation of traffic-and parking-free public spaces used for various forms of neighborhood activities and cooperation.
The personalized mobility campaign in the “Seestadt” pursues the following objectives:
- Communicating the mobility concept and alternatives to the car within the Seestadt
- Motivating new residents to use active, healthy and safe forms of mobility as well as public transport
- Increasing the acceptance and appreciation of traffic-free or traffic-reduced public spaces
- Stimulating processes of community building among both old and new residents of the Seestadt and their respective neighborhoods.